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How to Purify Water

How many of us do admit the fact that thousands have lived without clean water, Having access to pure water is significant for humans and animals,.

Water contains a lot of impurities and that can happen through pathogens, chemicals or other forms of impurities that lead to illness and other health issues, If you do not have clean water at home, there are various ways in which you can purify water.

Can you ever imagine the death toll from the waterborne disease in India claims more than 10,000 lives on an annual basis? This is the sole reason why the water must be made fit for consumption.

Water can be purified with the help of different processes, and an Electric water purifier is the most common while there are various other effective methods too. Some of the best methods to purify water are stated below:

1. Boiling

If we look or search for the most conventional method of water purification then boiling water will be crowned as the golden method. Not only it is a conventional form but also effective in nature.

The source of water or its channel of distribution might render the water unsafe for consumption because parasites and germs might enter that is not visible to the eyes but the impact can threaten life. In this mechanism, clean water is left to boil and rolling boils for around 1-3 minutes.

However, for the people dwelling in the region of high altitude there is a requirement to boil the water for a longer time frame. It is because, at a higher altitude, the boiling of water takes place at a lower temperature.

To ensure a proper boiling, it should be covered and left to cool before drinking. However, for water drawn from wells, the compound must be left to settle before the clean water is filtered out.

If you want to remove the impurity through the process of boiling then the following needs to be considered:

  • Water purification can happen after 3-5 minutes
  • At higher elevation, more boiling is needed
  • Boiling is not suited for removing heavy chemicals or contaminants of chemical from water
2. Filtration

Another effective way to treat the impure water is the process of filtration that helps in getting rid of the elements. This method is done through the use of chemicals and certain physical process that makes it apt for the consumption.

The process of filtration eliminates the large and small compounds together with the contaminants that can lead to disease. The best part of this method is that the mineral salts are not drained and is effective as compared to other processes.
Undoubtedly, it is result oriented because through the utilization of chemical absorption process the unwanted elements compounds are eliminated from water.
Filtration is a better mechanism as compared to reverse osmosis because it helps to get rid of smaller molecular compounds like pesticides and chlorine.

Further, the process of filtration is less costly and does not need a huge volume of energy as required in the case of distillation and reverse osmosis. It can be tagged as the economic way to purify water as less water is lost during the process of purification.

3. Distillation

Distillation is a process where the heat is utilized to collect water in the form of vapor. The process is justified in terms of benefit because the boiling point of water is lower as compared to other contaminants that cause disease traced in water.

For the process of vaporization, water is allowed to remain at the boiling point. The vapor moves to a condenser and left to cool. When it attains the cooling stage, it is brought back to the liquid water form which is free from any impurities and fit for consumption.

Other elements that contain a higher boiling point settle in the container. The method can be the best mechanism to remove bacteria, salts, germs and heavy metals such as mercury, lead, and arsenic. This method can reap the best result for those who are exposed to raw and impure water.

However, the method has its own merits and demerits. The major drawback of this process is that it is a time-consuming process and slow. Further, it requires a major source of heat for the work of purification. Though, a cheap source of energy is being established yet distillation remains a costly process.

This method is best suited when the purification involves less quantity of water.

Process of Distillation

Water distillation is one among the effective process that utilizes a source of heat so that the water gets vaporized and this leads to segregation of the contaminants. In fact, the elements that are undesirable and traced naturally can be removed easily. 

In the process of distillation the water is heated and is done till the point where it touches a low boiling point and vaporization tend to begin. Further, the water heat is kept at this temperature so that water vaporization is easy.

The process leads to separation of the water molecules from any microscopic heat source. When the process of vaporization is done, it is then guided to a condenser. When detached from the source of heat, the water gets cool and moves back to the liquid form thereby passing into the container.

4. Chlorination
Chlorine has a strong track record when it comes to purifying the impure water. It helps in killing parasites, germs and other organisms that lead to disease. To ensure the process to be effective, it can be done with the aid of liquid chlorine or tablets.

The best benefit that can be gathered in this method is that chlorine is cheap, as well as effective. But, proper caution should be taken before consuming the chlorine-treated water. For instance, people who are suffering from the problem of thyroid should speak to a doctor before using the product.

For the best results, it must be applied in heated water because they easily dissolve in water that reaches 21 degrees Celsius or more. The tablets of chlorine help in killing all bacteria that leaves the water clean, as well as safe. It is an orthodox technique and helps in during an emergency.

5. Reverse osmosis

For water purification, RO Filter can be described as the best method. The process of RO helps in forcing water through a membrane that is semi-permeable and helps in the removal of contaminants. The TDS controller and technology of Mineraliser technology makes it an effective process.

It retains the important nutrients and removes impurities. With the presence of a semi-permeable membrane, the screen leads to the passage of smaller molecules, the saltwater molecules remain behind while the freshwater makes a passage. This leads to pure, clean water devoid of any contaminants.

6. Solar purification 

Solar purification can be best termed as the alternative to the UV filtration that contains the treatment of water with the UV rays of the sun. Also known by the name of SODIS, it is one of the best mechanisms of killing pathogens in water. The process involves filling a plastic bottle with water.

It is then shaken that activates the oxygen and leaving it in the sunlight. The bottle needs to be kept in direct sunlight for approximately six hours so that parasites and bacteria are destroyed.

This method is effective because the plastic helps in trapping the heat from the sun and the water is pasteurized with the help of the UV rays. However, the efficiency of the method resides mainly on the intensity of the UV light. The frequency and intensity help in killing pathogens.

A chamber is utilized to mount the UV light; the passage of water then takes place through the chamber and leads to the killing of bacteria or viruses when immediately it gets exposed to the radiation channel. This system of UV is very effective because 99.99% of microorganisms are killed in the method.

There is no impact on the water in any scenario and hence, no weird taste or smell can be traced in the water. Though the method is suitable and effective in killing microorganisms, it is not suited for the removal of heavy metals and particles. Another vital point is the maintenance need of the purification system of the UV.

The cleaning needs to be done regularly and replacement needs to be done to maintain the system.

7. Addition of Iodine

Iodine is easily available as a tablet or in liquid form. It is highly potent and leads to the killing of bacteria and viruses. It can help in killing Giardia cycts if left for more than 45 minutes as compared to the normal routine of 30 minutes but remains ineffective when it comes to Cryptosporidium.

However, the major lacuna is that it leads to a taste that is unpleasant and high doses are fatal. Hence, it must be considered and used when there are no other alternatives available. It must be avoided by pregnant women, children, and people suffering from thyroid.